Tugas Dangerous Goods class 1
Arief Rahmat Hadi : 2241 09 001
Yudha Caesario : 2241 09 211
Daniel Ardika O : 2241 09 306
M Akmal Zaki : 2241 09 318
Yudha Pranata : 2241 09 344
THE 9 CLASSES OF DANGEROUS GOODS
‘Dangerous goods’ are materials or items with hazardous properties which, if not properly controlled, present a potential hazard to human health and safety, infrastructure and/ or their means of transport.
The transportation of dangerous goods is controlled and governed by a variety of different regulatory regimes, operating at both the national and international levels. Prominent regulatory frameworks for the transportation of dangerous goods include the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, ICAO’s Technical Instructions, IATA’s Dangerous Goods Regulations and the IMO’s International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code. Collectively, these regulatory regimes mandate the means by which dangerous goods are to be handled, packaged, labelled and transported.
Regulatory frameworks incorporate comprehensive classification systems of hazards to provide a taxonomy of dangerous goods. Classification of dangerous goods is broken down into nine classes according to the type of danger materials or items present, click on a class to read more details;
- Flammable Liquids
- Flammable Solids
- Oxidizing Substances
- Toxic & Infectious Substances
- Radioactive Material
- Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods
The multitude of dangerous goods regimes across the world and the complexity of dangerous goods classifications and regulations render compliance a particularly difficult task. However DGI, as a logistics company specialising in dangerous goods, is well placed to deliver tailored solutions to all customer’s dangerous goods needs. DGI is proficient in all nine classes of dangerous goods and provides a range of services including packaging, packing, labelling, freight forwarding and training.
CLASS 1 – EXPLOSIVES
1.1 Class 1 comprises:
.1 Explosive substances (a substance which is not itself an explosive but which can form an explosive atmosphere of gas, vapour or dust is not included in class 1), except those which are too dangerous to transport or those where the predominant hazard is one appropriate to another class;
.2 Explosive articles, except devices containing explosive substances in such quantity or of such a character that their inadvertent or accidental ignition or initiation during transport should not cause any effect external to the device either by projection, fire, smoke, heat or loud noise; and
.3 Substances and articles not mentioned under .1 and .2, which are manufactured with a view to producing a practical, explosive or pyrotechnic effect.
1.2 Transport of explosive substances, which are unduly sensitive, or so reactive as to be subject to spontaneous reaction, is prohibited.
1.3 For the purposes of this Code, the following definitions apply:
.1 Explosive substance means a solid or liquid substance (or a mixture of substances), which is in itself capable by chemical reaction of producing gas at such a temperature and pressure and at such a speed as to cause damage to the surroundings. Pyrotechnic substances are included even when they do not evolve gases.
.2 Pyrotechnic substance means a substance or a mixture of substances designed to produce an effect by heat, light, sound, gas or smoke or a combination of these as the result of non-detonative self-sustaining exothermic chemical reactions.
.3 Explosive article means an article containing one or more explosive substances.
.4 Mass explosion means one which affects almost the entire load virtually instantaneously.
1.4 Hazard divisions: The six hazard divisions of class 1 are:
Division 1.1 Substances and articles that have a mass explosion hazard
Division 1.2 Substances and articles that have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard
Division 1.3 Substances and articles that have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard
This division comprises substances and articles:
Division 1.4 Substances and articles that present no significant hazard
This division comprises substances and articles which present only a small hazard in the event of ignition or initiation during transport. The effects are largely confined to the package and no projection of fragments of appreciable size or range is to be expected. An external fire must not cause virtually instantaneous explosion of almost the entire contents of the package.
Note: Substances and articles in this division are in compatibility group S if they are so packaged or designed that any hazardous effects arising from the accidental functioning are confined within the package unless the package has been degraded by fire, in which case all blast or projection effects are limited to the extent that they do not significantly hinder fire fighting or other emergency response efforts in the immediate vicinity of the package.
Division 1.5 Very insensitive substances that have a mass explosion hazard
This division comprises substances that have a mass explosion hazard but are so insensitive that there is very little probability of initiation or of transition from burning to detonation under normal conditions of transport.
Note: The probability of transition from burning to detonation is greater when large quantities are transported in a ship. As a consequence, the stowage provisions for explosive substances in division 1.1 and for those in division 1.5 are identical.
1.5 Any substance or article having or suspected of having explosives characteristics shall first be considered for classification in class 1 in accordance with the procedures (IMDG Code par a. 2.1.3). Goods are not classified in class 1 when :
.1 unless specially authorized, the transport of an explosive substance is prohibited because sensitivity of the substance is excessive;
.2 the substance or article comes within the scope of those explosive substances and articles which are specifically excluded from class 1 by the definition of this class; or
.3 the substance or article has no explosive properties.
Division 1.6 Extremely insensitive articles that do not have a mass explosion hazard
This division comprises articles which contain only extremely insensitive detonating substances and which demonstrate a negligible probability of accidental initiation or propagation.
Note: The risk from articles of division 1.6 is limited to the explosion of a single article.
CLASS 1 – EXPLOSIVES
Explosives are materials or items which have the ability to rapidly conflagrate or detonate as a consequence of chemical reaction.
Division 1.1: Substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard
Division 1.2: Substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard
Division 1.3: Substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both
Division 1.4: Substances and articles which present no significant hazard; only a small hazard in the event of ignition or initiation during transport with any effects largely confined to the package
Division 1.5: Very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard
Division 1.6: Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard
Reason for Regulation
Explosives are capable by chemical reaction of producing gases at temperatures, pressures and speeds as to cause catastrophic damage through force and/or of producing otherwise hazardous amounts of heat, light, sound, gas or smoke.
Commonly Transported Explosives
- Blasting caps / detonators
- Explosive charges (blasting, demolition etc)
- Detonating cord
- Air bag inflators
- TNT / TNT compositions
- RDX / RDX compositions
- PETN / PETN compositions
EXPLOSIVES SAFETY (DANGEROUS GOODS CLASS 1)
Explosives are used in the community in a variety of forms. Whether they are familiar or not, they demand respect, caution and a common sense approach in their handling.
After ammunition, the second most significant usage of explosives in the community is for blasting. This activity, must only be carried out by licensed operators.
When explosives are packaged for transport and storage, a distinctive diamond- shaped label must appear on the package. This label has an orange background, with the word ‘Explosive’ in black letters in the centre. A black exploding object appears at the top of the label or this may be replaced with a number (e.g. 1.4).
An explosive is defined as ‘a material which, when suitably initiated, decomposes with the rapid formation of a large volume of gas at high temperature’. Explosives may be solid, liquid or gaseous, and may be single substances or mixtures of different substances.
In most explosives (but not all), the process by which large quantities of heat and gas are produced is oxidation, i.e. combustion in which the oxidiser is provided by the explosive, unlike normal combustion where the oxidiser is atmospheric oxygen.
Once this oxidation process in the explosive has been initiated, it will proceed without any additional energy or material being required, until the explosive has been fully consumed.
In some explosives, such as gunpowder, the fuels (carbon and sulphur), are present as separate ingredients mixed intimately with the oxidiser (potassium nitrate). In other explosives the fuel and oxidiser, are present within the same molecule e.g. trinitrotoluene (TNT), where the fuels are carbon and hydrogen atoms, and the oxidisers are nitro (NO2) groups.
It is convenient to divide explosives into different groups, characterised largely by their different rates of combustion. The precise rate of combustion for each explosive, is dependent on the chemical composition, the physical state, the degree of confinement and the means used to initiate the combustion. Explosives can be regarded simply as a source of chemical energy.
The main groups, in order of decreasing rate of combustion are:
These are defined as explosives, capable of detonation, and by which by production of blast and/or fragments of their container, are used for disruptive purposes.
Detonation , is the passage of an exothermic reaction wave through the explosive , following and supporting the shock front. The velocity of this wave is typically in the range, of 3000 to 10000 m/s.
The rate at which energy is released, is the main feature distinguishing high explosives from propellants. It is from this feature that the terminology ‘high’ or ‘low’ explosives, is derived.
Within these two categories there are subdivisions, based on other characteristic properties.
One such subdivision of high explosives is that of primary or secondary explosives. This classification essentially relates to the position of the explosive, in the explosive train used to control the initiation of a munition or charge.
A ‘primary explosive’ is a sensitive explosive, which is readily ignited and exploded. Primaries are used to initiate other explosives, and are often referred to as initiators. Some examples are : lead azide, lead styphnate, tetrazine.
An ‘intermediate explosive’ is used to augment the initiatory impulse, in order to cause detonation of the main explosive charge. These are really secondary explosives used in an intermediary role. Some examples are : PETN, RDX/wax.
A ‘secondary explosive’ is a substance or mixture, which will detonate when initiated by a shock wave, however it will not normally detonate, when heated or ignited. Some examples are : TNT, RDX/TNT.
These are explosives, which can burn in a rapid but controlled manner, i.e. without detonating, even when strongly confined e.g. within a gun barrel.
The pressure of the combustion gases, is used to drive a bullet or shell along the bore of a gun, or to propel a rocket.
The rate of burning is dependent on pressure, and is generally between 1 and 250 m/s.
Propellants can be either solid or liquid. In the space shuttle, both are used to propel the craft into space. The shuttle’s main engines burn liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, the main booster rockets use a solid propellant with ammonium perchlorate as oxidiser.
In most conventional ammunition, the propellant is solid. The main type used is based on nitrocellulose. Nitrocellulose is prepared by nitration of cellulose from trees or cotton, with nitric acid.
Raw nitrocellulose is sensitive to friction. In the solvent manufacturing process, the propellant usually contains residual solvent (typically diethyl ether), which increases the propellant’s sensitivity to static electricity. Solventless propellants have been developed, however they are not widely used.
During manufacture, propellants are extruded through a die, and then cut to length. The length and diameter are varied to suit the final use. For example, propellant used in small arms ammunition, has a small diameter and length, whereas propellant used in large caliber ammunition, has larger grain diameter and length.
When propellant is ignited, it burns quite evenly from all surfaces. If the propellant grain is a cylinder, its burning surface decreases as it burns, resulting in decreased gas production. This is undesirable, and is corrected by perforating the propellant grains, when the propellant is extruded through the die.
The resulting holes provide surfaces, which increase as the propellant burns, and compensates for the decreasing outer surface.
Some propellants absorb moisture, which can cause instability during storage, and cause ‘muzzle-flash. All service propellants are stabilised by the addition of chemical additives.
Propellants based on nitrocellulose alone are called ‘single-base’ propellants. There are applications, where a higher power is needed. This requirement is met by ‘double-base’ propellants in which an explosive (nitroglycerine) is added to the nitrocellulose, during manufacture.
These are explosives, which burn at slower rates than propellants, and are used as sources of intense light (coloured and white), noise and as igniters to priming and delay compositions.
The rate of burning is again dependent on pressure, and is generally between 0.1 and 15 m/s.
Pyrotechnic compositions are generally composed of an intimate mixture of finely divided combustible substances, and oxidants which upon ignition, can either burn to produce light or smoke, or explode to produce noise.
The purpose of an oxidant is to provide oxygen for the combustion of the fuel. Some examples of oxidants are: metal nitrates, ammonium nitrate, potassium chlorate, potassium perchlorate.
The purpose of a fuel is to generate energy during combustion. Fuels can be either metal powders, such as magnesium (used in flares), or carbon based, such as lactose (used in smoke generation).
Colour can be produced by the presence of metal nitrates in the pyrotechnic composition. These are used in signal flares, tracers or in fireworks, and can produce colours such as green, blue, yellow, orange, purple and red.
An example of a pyrotechnic is the common safety match. The striker pad on the matchbox consists of a composition of red phosphorus, which is sensitive to friction.
There are four main types of ignition mechanisms. They are:
The likelihood of an explosive igniting is a function of the sensitivity.
The more sensitive, the more likely it is, that ignition will occur. The sensitivity can be found by:
- Experience (not a good idea)
- Guessing (definitely not a good idea)
- Careful experiments (recorded as Explosive Safety Certificates).
Explosive Safety Certificates typically report : ‘sensitiveness to direct mechanical shock’, ‘sensitiveness to friction’, temperature of ignition’, ‘inflammability’, ‘behaviour on inflammation’, ‘chemical stability’, ‘special precautions’, ‘poisonous ingredients’, ‘method of preparing and filling’, and ‘general precautions to be observed during manufacture and use’.
BEHAVIOUR ON IGNITION
Once ignited and explosive can burn, at a controlled rate (when heat and gas are free to escape). It can deflagrate, when the burning rate increases ( due to thermal conduction and radiation). It can detonate, when the deflagration front reaches shock wave conditions (heat and pressure reinforce the shock front, temperatures of 3500 degrees Celcius and pressures of 300000 atmospheres, are common).
Wood has a higher energy content than most explosives, however it’s energy of activation is much greater, and its energy is released over a much longer period. Propellants have a low activation energy, and release their energy over a much shorter time.
TYPES OF EXPLOSIVES
Detonation, low order
Medium to low
Detonation, high order